Plastics, gender and the environment

Findings of a literature study

Findings of a literature study on the lifecycle of plastics and its impacts on woman and men, from production to litter. 

Product details
Date of Publication
November 2017 WECF
All rights reserved
Language of publication
Table of contents
  • Executive summary
  • Main findings from the literature study 
  • The report
  • Table of Contents
  • Tables, figures and boxes
  • Abbreviations
  • Introduction - The nexus of gender and plastic

1. Understanding the overall dimensions of gender in plastic production and consumption

2. Workforce and exposure in the plastic industry

  • 2.1  Socially determined factors of the workforce
  • 2.2 Physiological differences between women and men often incompatible labour protection    policies
  • 2.3  Worker´s exposure to hazardous chemicals

3. Overview of hazardous chemicals in plastics and their impact on women´s and men´s health

  • 3.1 Plastics, EDCs and observed healtheffects

4. Exposure to hazardous chemicals from some everyday products
5. Gender and microplastics management

  • 5.1 Background
  • 5.2 Products that contain microplastics and the role of men and women in production    consumption
  • 5.3 Microplastics in the environment and its sources
  • 5.4 Can we manage microplastics in the environment – and what is the role for men/women as agent of change?

6. Marine environment: Exposure to (micro-) plastics and health aspects for aquatic organisms

  • 6.1    Occurrence and pathways of (micro-) plastics in the marine environment
  • 6.2    Uptake of plastic particles and transfer between trophic levels
  • 6.3    Plastic uptake and accumulation in animals 
  • 6.4    Seafood and gender aspects
  • 6.5    Fishing related marine litter and gender

7. Plastic waste management

  • 7.1    Municipal solid waste generation 
  • 7.2    Plastic Recovery rates
  • 7.3    Collecting and Recycling practices
  • 7.4    Landfills and dumping; controlled and uncontrolled
  • 7.5    Incineration: controlled and uncontrolled

8. Green consumerism, environmental awareness and behaviour

  • 8.1 Social  determinants and plastic exposure
  • 8.2 Gender roles in waste generation and management
  • 8.3 Factors  influencing pro-environmental behavior and attitudes 

9. Wastewater

  • 9.1 Microplastics in wastewater 
  • 9.2 Personal Hygiene and wastewater: Gender aspects

10. Bio-plastics and classification of plastic waste 

  • 10.1 Bio degradable and bio-based plastics
  • 10.2  Classification of plastic waste

11. Main findings from the Literature review
12. Recommendations
13. Women and men as agents of change

  • Annex 1
  • Bibliography